Diabetes Muddy Waters: Is It Type 1 or Type 2?

Activity Preview

The pathophysiology of diabetes is more complex than we thought, and it demands an evolved understanding. We’ve gone from an “ominous octet” of dysfunctional organ systems to the “egregious eleven,” with interplay among type 1, type 1.5, and type 2 diabetes. This means metformin alone cannot always achieve glycemic control for many patients. Clinicians initiating a second-line therapy must choose from several treatment options, including insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

Learning Objectives

At the completion of this knowledge-based activity, participants will be able to:

  1. Describe the eleven pathways that lead to hyperglycemia and how this impacts the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
  2. Discuss the new recommendations for antihyperglycemic therapy from the updated guidelines for type 2 diabetes.
  3. Compare the various non-insulin pharmacologic agents for the management of type 1 diabetes.
  4. Formulate a patient-centered diabetes treatment plan considering the A1C target, cardiovascular impact, and “egregious eleven.”

Activity type: Knowledge-based

Target Audience: Pharmacists 

Learning Level: 2

Accreditation Information


The American Pharmacists Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. The following archived webinar is approved for 2.0 contact hour of CPE credit (0.2 CEUs). The ACPE Universal Activity Number for this activity is 0202-0000-19-011-L01-P

To obtain credit for completing Diabetes Muddy Waters: Is It Type 1 or Type 2?, watch the archived webinar, complete the assessment with a grade of 70% or better, complete the evaluation questions, and then CLAIM credit. Participants need to have a valid pharmacist.com username and password to claim credit. After credit has been claimed, please visit CPE monitor for your transcript. 

Initial release date: March 22, 2019

Expiration date: March 22, 2022 


Diabetes Muddy Waters: Is It Type 1 or Type 2? is an archived, online educational activity for pharmacists developed by the American Pharmacists Association.


Susan Cornell, PharmD, BS, FAPhA serves on an advisory board for Novo Nordisk and Becton Dickinson, as well as, speakers bureau for Novo Nordisk and Abbott Diabetes Care.

Kam Capoccia, BSPharm, PharmD, BCPS, CDE, and APhA’s editorial staff declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests in any product or service mentioned in this activity, including grants, employment, gifts, stock holdings, and honoraria. For a complete list of APhA staff disclosures, visit the APhA website at www.pharmacist.com/apha-disclosures

Conflicts of interest have been resolved through content review by Helen Sairany, BA, PharmD, MBA, BCACP, Director of Content Development & Partnership at the American Pharmacists Association


There is no fee associated with this member only activity as part of the 2019 Home Study on Demand package. 

System Requirements

Computer and internet access are required to complete this activity.  Please visit our website to view the Technology System Requirements.